Carbon - Diamond - C

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General informations

Symbol C
Atomic Number 6
Element Category (chemical set) Polyatomic non metal
Group 14 (carbon group)
Period 2
Block p Page 13, Dozzi, M. V., & Selli, E. (2013). Doping TiO2 with p-block elements: Effects on photocatalytic activity. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology C: Photochemistry Reviews, 14, 13–28.
Mohs Hardness 10 Page 2, Will, G., & Perkins, P. G. (1999). A scientific approach to hardness: Materials Letters, 40(1), 1–4.
CAS Registry Number 7782-40-3
EINECS Registry Number 231-953-2

Physical Properties

Phase Solid
Melting Point 4300 K Page 579, Adawi, M. A., Didyk, A. Y., Varichenko, V. S., & Zaitsev, A. M. (1998). Radiation damage in dielectric and semiconductor single crystals (direct observation). Invited presentation at the Second Radiation Physics Conference, Menoufia, Egypt, 20–24 November 1994.1. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 53(5), 577–582.
Boiling Point
Density near Room Temperature 3,51532 g/cm3 Page 1773, Mykolajewycz, R., Kalnajs, J., & Smakula, A. (1964). High‐Precision Density Determination of Natural Diamonds. Journal of Applied Physics, 35(6), 1773–1778.
Density when Liquid at Melting Point
Heat of Fusion 9.2 MJ/kg "Polycristalline Diamond and method for forming same", Inventors: David K. Potter; Thomas J. Ahrens, both of Pasadena, Calif., Assignee: California Institut, Patent Number: 5,087,435, Date of Patent: Feb. 11, 1992
Heat of Vaporization
Molar Volume 3,417.10-6 m3/mol Page 201913-2, Wang, C. X., Liu, P., Cui, H., & Yang, G. W. (2005). Nucleation and growth kinetics of nanocrystals formed upon pulsed-laser ablation in liquid. Applied Physics Letters, 87(20), 201913.
Molar Heat Capacity 6,115 J.mol-1.K-1 Table 5.1, Page 68, Yoshioka, D. (2007). The Heat Capacity of a Solid, and Black-Body Radiation. Statistical Physics: An Introduction, 67–81.
Vapor Pressure
Oxidation State 0
Speed of Sound 12000 m/s Page 4, Albrecht, A., Retzker, A., Jelezko, F., & Plenio, M. B. (2013). Coupling of nitrogen vacancy centres in nanodiamonds by means of phonons. New Journal of Physics, 15(8), 83014.
Thermal Expansion 10-6 K-1 Page 39, Schubert, T., Trindade, B., Weißgärber, T., & Kieback, B. (2008). Interfacial design of Cu-based composites prepared by powder metallurgy for heat sink applications. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 475(1), 39–44.
Thermal Conductivity > 2000 W.m-1.K-1 Page 22, Wort, C. J. H., & Balmer, R. S. (2008). Diamond as an electronic material. Materials Today, 11(1), 22–28.
Electrical Resistivity 10e16 Page 270, Manca, J. V, Nesladek, M., Neelen, M., Quaeyhaegens, C., De Schepper, L., & De Ceuninck, W. (1999). High electrical resistivity of CVD-diamond. Microelectronics Reliability, 39(2), 269–273.
Magnetic Ordering diamagnetic
Young's Modulus 1144 GPa Page 880, Maître, N., Camelio, S., Barranco, A., Girardeau, T., & Breelle, E. (2005). Physical and chemical properties of amorphous hydrogenated carbon films deposited by PECVD in a low self-bias range. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 351(10), 877–884.
Shear Modulus 533 GPa Page 429, Hebbache, M. (2000). Shear modulus and hardness of crystals: density functional calculations. Solid State Communications, 113(8), 427–432.
Bulk Modulus 435 GPa Page 7990, Cohen, M. L. (1985). Calculation of bulk moduli of diamond and zinc-blende solids. Physical Review B, 32(12), 7988–7991. Retrieved from
Poisson Ratio 0,0845 Table 1, Page 119, Krawitz, A. D., Andrew Winholtz, R., Drake, E. F., & Griffin, N. D. (1999). Residual stresses in polycrystalline diamond compacts. International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, 17(1), 117–122.
Electronegativity (Pauling scale) 2,55 Table 1, Page 11334, Li, K., & Xue, D. (2006). Estimation of Electronegativity Values of Elements in Different Valence States. The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 110(39), 11332–11337.
Energy Gap (at 300K) 5,47 eV Page 430, Cui, J. B., Ristein, J., & Ley, L. (1998). Electron Affinity of the Bare and Hydrogen Covered Single Crystal Diamond (111) Surface. Physical Review Letters, 81(2), 429–432. Retrieved from
Dielectric Constant 5,7 Page 270, Manca, J. V, Nesladek, M., Neelen, M., Quaeyhaegens, C., De Schepper, L., & De Ceuninck, W. (1999). High electrical resistivity of CVD-diamond. Microelectronics Reliability, 39(2), 269–273.

Atomic Properties

Standard Atomic Weight 12,011 Table 3, Page 284, Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report) . (2016). Pure and Applied Chemistry .
Atomic Radius 77 pm Table 2.5, Page 18, Pierson, H. O. (2012). Handbook of carbon, graphite, diamonds and fullerenes: processing, properties and applications. Noyes Publications.
Covalent Radius 0,77 A Page 184, Giannini, C., Fischer, A., Lange, C., Ploog, K., & Tapfer, L. (1992). Heavy carbon doping of GaAs grown by solid‐source molecular‐beam epitaxy. Applied Physics Letters, 61(2), 183–185.
Van der Waals Radius 170 pm Page 354, Williams, K. A., & Eklund, P. C. (2000). Monte Carlo simulations of H2 physisorption in finite-diameter carbon nanotube ropes. Chemical Physics Letters, 320(3), 352–358.
Electron Configuration 1s2 2s2 2p2 Page 165504-1, Prasad, D. L. V. K., & Jemmis, E. D. (2008). Stuffing Improves the Stability of Fullerenelike Boron Clusters. Physical Review Letters, 100(16), 165504. Retrieved from
Electrons per Shell 2, 4
Crystal Structure face centered cubic Page 385, Knight, D. S., & White, W. B. (1989). Characterization of diamond films by Raman spectroscopy. Journal of Materials Research, 4(2), 385–393.