Germanium – Ge

Family : Semi-conductor

 

Physical properties

Phasesolid
Melting point1211,40 K (Page 2, "Femtosecond laser processing of germanium: an ab initio molecular dynamics study", Pengfei Ji and Yuwen Zhang, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Volume 46, Number 49, November 2013)
Boiling point3106 K (Page 2, "Femtosecond laser processing of germanium: an ab initio molecular dynamics study", Pengfei Ji and Yuwen Zhang, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Volume 46, Number 49, November 2013)
Density near room temperature5,323 g/cm3 ("Numerical simulation for convective effect on silicon transport and dissolution in a germanium melt", R. Motomura , Y. Takagi , Y. Okano, N. Armour , S. Dost, In Meeting Abstracts (No. 1, pp. 62-62), The Electrochemical Society, February 2010)
Density when liquid at meting point5,51 g/cm3 (Page 407, "Volume Changes during Melting and Heating of Silicon and Germanium Melts", V. M. Gjazov, O. D. Shchelikov, High Temperature, Volume 38, Issue 3, pp 405-412, May 2000)
Heat of fusion34,71 kJ/mol (Page 66, "Semiconductor materials", Lev I. Berger, CRC Press, 1997)
Heat of vaporization333,9 kJ/mol (Page 66, "Semiconductor materials", Lev I. Berger, CRC Press, 1997)
Molar volumeNot set
Molar heat capacity23,222 J/(mol.K) (David R. Lide, editor. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 88th edition. Boca Raton, Florida: Taylor & Francis Group, 2008)
Vapor pressureNot set
Speed of sound5400 m/s (at 20°C) (Page 996, "Hot electrons in germanium and Ohm's law", W. Shockley, Bell System Technical Journal, Volume 30, Issue 4, October 1951)
Thermal expansion5,838 µm/(m.K) (Table 3, Page 262, "Thermal expansion and lattice parameters of group IV semiconductors", Robert R. Reeber, Kai Wang, Materials Chemistry and Physics, Volume 46, Issues 2–3, November–December 1996)
Thermal conductivity60 W/m.K (Figure 1, Page 045901-2, "Role of Disorder and Anharmonicity in the Thermal Conductivity of Silicon-Germanium Alloys: A First-Principles Study", Jivtesh Garg, Nicola Bonini, Boris Kozinsky, Nicola Marzari, Physical Review Letters, Volume 106, 2011)
Electrical resistivity40 Ω.cm (Page 6522, "Hall‐effect measurements on Cr films deposited on Ge substrates", Chien‐Sheng Hsieh, Klaus Schröder, Journal of Applied Physics, Volume 79 , 1996)
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic (Page 17, book "Magnetic materials and their applications", Carl Heck, Butterwoths editions, 1974)
Young's modulus103 GPa ("Room-temperature direct bonding of germanium wafers by surface-activated bonding method", Eiji Higurashi, Yuta Sasaki, Ryuji Kurayama, Tadatomo Suga, Yasuo Doi, Yoshihiro Sawayama and Iwao Hosako, Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Volume 54, Number 3, 2015)
Shear modulus56 GPa (Page 429, "Shear modulus and hardness of crystals: density functional calculations", M. Hebbache, Solid State Communications, Volume 113, Issue 8, (2000))
Bulk modulus76 GPa (Page 429, "Shear modulus and hardness of crystals: density functional calculations", M. Hebbache, Solid State Communications, Volume 113, Issue 8, (2000))
Poisson ratio0,273 (Page 2508, "Indirect band gap and band alignment for coherently strained SixGe1-x bulk alloys on germanium (001) substrates", R. People, Physical Review B, Volume 34, Number 4, (1986))
Electronegativity (Pauling scale)2.01 (Table 1, Page 11334, "Estimation of Electronegativity Values of Elements in Different Valence States", Keyan Li and Dongfeng Xue, Journal of Physical Chemistry, Volume 110, (2006))
Electrical conductivity250 μS.m-1 (Page 157, "Carbon–fiber–silicon-nanocomposites for lithium-ion battery anodes by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition", H. Wolf, Z. Pajkic, T. Gerdes, M. Willert-Porada, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 190, Issue 1, 1 May 2009)
Energy gap (at 300 K)0,67 eV (Page 375, "The infrared HOMO-LUMO gap of germanium clusters", Y. Negishi, H. Kawamata, F. Hayakawa, A. Nakajima, K. Kaya, Chemical Physics Letters, Number 294 (1998))
Dielectric constant16,0 (Page 1671, "Effect of Neutral Impurity on the Microwave Conductivity and Dielectric Constant of Germanium at Low Temperatures", F.A. d'Altroy, H.Y. Fan, Physical Review, Volume 103, Number 6 (1956))
 

Atomic properties

Standard atomic weight72,64 g/mol (Page 362, "Optical and compositional properties of amorphous silicon-germanium films by plasma processing for integrated photonics", William W. Hernández-Montero, Ignacio E. Zaldívar-Huerta, Carlos Zúñiga-Islas, Alfonso Torres-Jácome, Claudia Reyes-Betanzo, and Adrián Itzmoyotl-Toxqui, Optical Materials Express, Volume 2, Issue 4, 2012)
Atomic radius152 pm (Page 3, "Experimental observation of moving intrinsic localized modes in germanium", Juan F. R. Archilla, Sergio M.M. Coelho, F. Danie Auret, Cloud Nyamhere, Vladimir I. Dubinko, and Vladimir Hizhnyakov, Springer Series in Materials Science, Volume 221, 2015)
Covalent radius122 pm (Page 153502-1, "Silicon-based tunneling field-effect transistor with elevated germanium source formed on „110… silicon substrate", Genquan Han, Pengfei Guo, Yue Yang, Chunlei Zhan, Qian Zhou, and Yee-Chia Yeo, Applied Physics Letters, Number 98, 2011)
Van der Waals radius211 pm (Page 5809, "Consistent van der Waals Radii for the Whole Main Group", Manjeera Mantina, Adam C. Chamberlin, Rosendo Valero, Christopher J. Cramer, and Donald G. Truhlar, Journal of Physical Chemistry, Number 113, 2009)
Electron configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2 (Page 082111-1, "Electronic properties of two-dimensional hexagonal germanium", M. Houssa, G. Pourtois, V. Afanas'ev, A. Stesmans, Applied Physics Letters, Number 96, 2010)
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 4
Oxidation state+2, +4
Crystal structureface-centered cubic (Page 4321, "Variation of activation volume with temperature for Fe, Si, and Ge", K.K. Mani Pandey, Om Prakash, B. Bhattacharya, Materials Letters, Number 57, 2003)
 

General informations

SymbolGe
Atomic number32
Element category (chemical set)mettaloid (Page 412, "The Primary and Secondary Production of Germanium: A Life-Cycle Assessment of Different Process Alternatives", Benedicte Robertz, Jensen Verhelle, Maarten Schurmans, Journal of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, Volume 67, Issue 2, Februrary 2015)
Group14 (carbon group) (Page 842, "Inorganic clathrate-II materials of group 14: synthetic routes and physical properties", Beekman, M., & Nolas, G. S., Journal of Materials Chemistry, Volume 18, 2008)
Period4 (Page 145, "Metalloid compounds as drugs", Sekhon B. S., Research in pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Number 3, 2013)
Blockp (Page 27, "Phosphine complexes of the heavier p-block elements: aspects of structure and bonding", Norman, N. C., & Pickett, N. L., Coordination Chemistry Reviews, Volume 145, 1994)
Mohs hardness6.0 (Page 847, "Germanium-Containing Compounds, Current Knowledge and Applications", Erwin Rosenberg, Encyclopedia of Metalloproteins, ISBN 978-1-4614-1532-9, Springer New York, 2013)
CAS Registry number7440-56-4 (Page 4718, "Germanium-hydrogen bond strengths in germanes", Matthew J. Almond, Alan M. Doncaster, Paul N. Noble, Robin Walsh, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 104(17), 1982)
EINECS registry numberNot set


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