Copper – Cu

Family : Metal


General informations

Atomic number29
Element category (chemical set)Metal
Group11 (Page 349, "Copper, silver, and gold complexes in hydrosilylation reactions", Díez-González S., Nolan S. P., Accounts of chemical research, Volume 41, Number 2, 2008)
Period4 (Page 1741, "Complexes of poly (acrylic acid) with some divalent, trivalent and tetravalent metal ions", Roma-Luciow R., Sarraf L., Morcellet M., European Polymer Journal, Volume 37, Number 9, 2001)
Blockd (Page 5133, "Configuration energies of the d-block elements", Mann J. B., Meek T. L., Knight E. T., Capitani J. F., Allen L. C., Journal of the American Chemical Society, Volume 122, Number 21, 2000)
Mohs hardness3 (Page 1287, "Lead-free carbon brushes for automotive starters", Arwed Uecker, Wear Volume 255, Issues 7–12, August–September 2003, 14th International Conference on Wear of Materials)
CAS Registry number7440-50-8 (Page 1836, "Distribution of copper, silver and gold during thermal treatment with brominated flame retardants", Sylwia Oleszek, Mariusz Grabda, Etsuro Shibata, Takashi Nakamura, Waste Management, Volume 33, Issue 9, September 2013)
EINECS registry number231-159-6 ("A study on the effect of ageing and intermetallic compound growth on the shear strength of surface mount technology solder joints", Nath, J., Mallik, S., & Borah, A., Journal of The Institution of Engineers - Series D, Volume 96, Issue 1, April 2015)

Atomic properties

Standard atomic weight63,54 g/mol (Page 1489, "Diffusion bonding of commercially pure titanium to low carbon steel using a silver interlayer", Atasoy Evren, Nizamettin Kahraman, Materials characterization, Volume 59, Issue 10, 2008)
Atomic radius128 pm (Table 3, Page 372, "Comparison of the adsorption of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc and barium to freshwater surface coatings", Deming Dong, Yu Li, Jingjing Zhang, Xiuyi Hua, Chemosphere, Volume 51, Issue 5, May 2003)
Covalent radius138 pm ("Relationship between the widths of supercooled liquid regions and bond parameters of Mg-based bulk metallic glasses", Shoushi Fang, Xueshan Xiao, Lei Xia, Weihuo Li, Yuanda Dong, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, Volume 321, Issues 1–2, 15 June 2003)
Van der Waals radius1,4 A ("A Simultaneous Redox, Alkylation, Self-Assembly Reaction under Solvothermal Conditions Afforded a Luminescent Copper Chain Polymer Constructed of Cu3I4 and EtS-4-C5H4N+Et Components (Et = CH3CH2)", Volume 126, No 25, 2004)
Electron configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s1 ("Stress and displacement configurations in the vicinity of a void in a nanometer copper strip", Johansson D., Hansson P., & Melin S., Engineering Fracture Mechanics, Volume 152, February 2016)
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 1 ("Characterisation of metal oxide semiconductor capacitor structure using low-k dielectric methylsilsesquioxane with evaporated aluminium and copper gate", Aw K. C., Ibrahim K., Thin Solid Films, Volume 434, No 1, 2003)
Oxidation state+1, +2 ("Electrochemistry of copper complexes with polyaza[n]paracyclophanes. Influence of ATP as an exogen ligand on the relative stability of the Cu(II) and Cu(I) oxidation states", Antonio Doménech, Enrique Garcia-Espana, Santiago V. Luis, Victor Marcelino, Juan F. Miravet, Inorganica Chimica Acta, Vol. 299, No 2, 2000)
Crystal structureface-centered cubic (Page 5, "Large-scale synthesis of copper nanoparticles by chemically controlled reduction for applications of inkjet-printed electronics", Youngil Lee, Jun-rak Choi, Kwi Jong Lee, Nathan E Stott and Donghoon Kim, Nanotechnology, Volume 19, No 41, 2008)

Physical properties

Melting point1084,6 °C ("The formation of Cu 2 S from the elements: I. Copper used in form of powders", Blachnik R., Müller A., Thermochimica acta, Volume 361, Numero 1, 2000)
Boiling point2562 °C ("Effect of Rake Angle on Dimensional Accuracy of Copper Micro-drilling", Sharma Vrind Kumar et Ghuman Rajbir Singh, Journal of Academia and Industrial Research (JAIR), Volume 2, Numero 5, 2013)
Density near room temperature8,93 g/cm3 (Page 85, "Compressibility of hierarchic-architectured agglomerates of hydrogen-reduced copper nanopowders", Ahn, D. H., Kim, W., Yoon, E. Y., & Kim, H. S., Journal of Materials Science, Volume 51, Issue 1, 2016)
Density when liquid at meting point7970 +-20 kg/m3 (Page 199, "Density of copper–aluminum alloys at temperatures up to 1400°C determined by the gamma ray technique", A. R. Kurochkin, P. S. Popel, D. A. Yagodin , A. V. Borisenko , and A. V. Okhapkin, High Temperature, Volume 51, Issue 2, March 2013)
Heat of fusion13,138 kJ/mol (Page 4105, "Numerical Analysis of Aluminium Extraction from Packaging Waste Utilizing Arc Plasma", Chung J., Seomun J., & Kim J., Asian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 26, Issue 13, 2014)
Heat of vaporization325,08 +- 13,09 kJ/mol (Page 1213, "Determination of Vapor Pressure of Liquid Copper by Carrier Gas Method", Y.J. Duan, B. Chen, Y.C. Ma, M. Gao, K. Liu, Journal of Materials Science & Technology, Volume 29, Issue 12, December 2013)
Molar volume7,1106 cm3/mol (Table 1, Page 680, "Approximated equations for molar volumes of pure solid fcc metals and their liquids from zero Kelvin to above their melting points at standard pressure", George Kaptay, Journal of Materials Science, Volume 50, Issue 2, January 2015)
Molar heat capacity24,45 J/mol.K at 300K (Table II, Page 644, "‘‘Tray’’ type calorimeter for the 15–300 K temperature range: Copper as a specific heat standard in this range", Martin, D. L., Review of scientific instruments, 58(4), 1987)
Vapor pressureNot set
Speed of sound5,01 km/s (Page 112, "Continuum-atomistic simulation of picosecond laser heating of copper with electron heat capacity from ab initio calculation", Pengfei Ji, Yuwen Zhang, Chemical Physics Letters, Volume 648, 2016)
Thermal expansion17,0.10-6/K at 20°C (Table 1, Page 536, "Thermal expansion behavior of through-silicon-via structures in three-dimensional microelectronic packaging", E.J. Cheng, Y.-L. Shen, Microelectronics Reliability, Volume 52, 2012)
Thermal conductivity387,6 W/m.K (Page 4105, "Numerical Analysis of Aluminium Extraction from Packaging Waste Utilizing Arc Plasma", Chung J., Seomun J., & Kim J., Asian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 26, Issue 13, 2014)
Electrical resistivity1,68 μΩ.cm (Page 795, "Intense pulsed light sintering of copper nanoink for printed electronics", Hak-Sung Kim, Sanjay R. Dhage, Dong-Eun Shim, H. Thomas Hahn, Thin Solid Films, Volume 520, Issue 7, 31 January 2012)
Magnetic orderingDiamagnetic (Page e654, "Coupling mechanism of an EMAT", X. Jian, S. Dixon, R.S. Edwards, J. Morrison, Ultrasonic, Volume 44, Supplement, 22 December 2006)
Young's modulus125 GPa (Page 287, "Electroless copper coating of epoxide plates in an ultrasonic field", Touyeras, F.,Hihn, J. Y., Doche, M. L., & Roizard, X., Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 8(3), 2001)
Shear modulus44 GPa (Table 1, Page 547, "Interaction Between Dislocations in a Couple Stress Medium", Farris, T. N., Journal of Applied Mechanics, Volume 71, July 2004)
Bulk modulus140 GPa (Figure 4, Page 161, "Investigation of size dependence of the properties of Cu nanoclusters using molecular dynamics simulation", Akbarzadeh, H., & Abbaspour, Journal of Molecular Liquids, Volume 219, July 2016)
Poisson ratio0,34 (Table 1, Page 547, "Interaction Between Dislocations in a Couple Stress Medium", Farris, T. N., Journal of Applied Mechanics, Volume 71, July 2004)
Electronegativity (Pauling scale)1,90 (Page 372, "Batch and continuous fixed-bed column biosorption of Cd2+ and Cu2+", Muhamad H., Doan H., Lohi A., Chemical Engineering Journal, 158(3), 2010)
Electrical conductivity141,10 ohm/cm (Table 1, Page 470, "Composite electromagnetic interference shielding materials for aerospace applications", Christopher J. von Klemperer, Denver Maharaj, Composite Structures, Volume 91, Issue 4, December 2009)
Energy gap (at 300 K)Not set
Dielectric constantNot set

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