Carbon – Diamond – C

Family : Semi-conductor

 

General informations

SymbolC
Atomic number6
Element category (chemical set)Polyatomic non metal
Group14 (carbon group)
Period2
Blockp (Page 13, article "Doping TiO2 with p-block elements: Effects on photocatalytic activity", Maria Vittoria Dozzi, Elena Selli, Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology C: Photochemistry Reviews, Volume 14, 2013)
Mohs hardness10 (Page 2, article "A scientific approach to hardness: the hardness of diamond and cubic boron nitride", Georg Will, Peter G. Perkind, Material Letters, Volume 40, 1999)
CAS Registry number7782-40-3
EINECS registry number231-953-2
 

Physical properties

PhaseSolid
Melting point4300 K ("Radiation damage in dielectric and semiconductor single crystals (direct observation)", M. A. Adawi, A. Yu. Didykb, V. S. Varichenkoc, A. M. Zaitsev, Radiation Physics and Chemistry 53, 1998)
Boiling pointNot set
Density near room temperature3,51532 g/cm3 (page 1773, "High-precision density determination of natural diamonds", R. Mykolajewycz, J. Kalnajs, A. Smakula, Journal of Applied Physics, Volume 35, Number 6, 1964)
Density when liquid at meting pointNot set
Heat of fusion9.2 MJ/kg ("Polycristalline Diamond and method for forming same", Inventors: David K. Potter; Thomas J. Ahrens, both of Pasadena, Calif., Assignee: California Institut, Patent Number: 5,087,435, Date of Patent: Feb. 11, 1992)
Heat of vaporizationNot set
Molar volume3,417.10-6 m3/mol (Page 201913-2, "Nucleation and growth kinetics of nanocrystals formed upon pulsed-laser ablation in liquid", C. X. Wang, P. Liu, H. Cui, and G. W. Yang, Applied Physics Letters 87, 2005)
Molar heat capacity6,115 J.mol-1.K-1 (Table 5.1, Page 68, " The Heat Capacity of a Solid, and Black-Body Radiation", Yoshioka D., Statistical Physics: An Introduction, (2007))
Vapor pressureNot set
Speed of sound12000 m/s (Page 4, "Coupling of nitrogen vacancy centres in nanodiamonds by means of phonons", A Albrecht, A Retzker, F Jelezko and M B Plenio, New Journal of Physics, Volume 15, August 2013)
Thermal expansion10-6 K-1 (Page 39, "Interfacial design of Cu-based composites prepared by powder metallurgy for heat sink applications", Th. Schuberta, B. Trindadeb, T. Weißgärbera, B. Kieback, Materials Science and Engineering: A, Volume 475, Issues 1–2, 25 February 2008))
Thermal conductivity> 2000 W.m-1.K-1 (Page 22, "Diamond as an electronic material", Chris J.H. Wort , Richard S. Balmer, Materials Today Volume 11, Issues 1–2, January–February 2008)
Electrical resistivity10e16 ohm.cm (Page 270, "High electrical resistivity of CVD-diamond", J.V. Manca, M. Nesladek, M. Neelen, C. Quaeyhaegens, L. De Schepper, W. De Ceuninck, Microelectronics Reliability 39 (1999))
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic
Young's modulus1144 GPa (Page 880, "Physical and chemical properties of amorphous hydrogenated carbon films deposited by PECVD in a low self-bias range", N. Maitre , S. Camelio, A. Barranco, Th. Girardeau, E. Breelle, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids 351 (2005))
Shear modulus533 GPa (Page 429, "Shear modulus and hardness of crystals: density functional calculations", M. Hebbache, Solid State Communications 113 (2000))
Bulk modulus435 GPa (Page 7990, "Calculation of bulk moduli of diamond and zinc-blende solids", Marvin L. Cohen, Physical Review B, Volume 32, Number 12, (1985))
Poisson ratio0,0845 (Table 1, Page 119, "Residual stresses in polycrystalline diamond compacts", A.D. Krawitz, R. Andrew Winholtz, E.F. Drake, N.D. Griffin, International Journal of Refractory Metals & Hard Materials, Volume 17, (1999))
Electronegativity (Pauling scale)2,55 (Table 1, Page 11334, "Estimation of Electronegativity Values of Elements in Different Valence States", Keyan Li and Dongfeng Xue, Journal of Physical Chemistry, Volume 110, (2006))
Electrical conductivity10e-15 S/m (Page 270, "High electrical resistivity of CVD-diamond", J.V. Manca, M. Nesladek, M. Neelen, C. Quaeyhaegens, L. De Schepper, W. De Ceuninck, Microelectronics Reliability 39 (1999))
Energy gap (at 300 K)5,47 eV (Page 430, "Electron affinity of the bare and hydrogen covered single crystal diamond (111) surface", J.B. Cui, J. Ristein, L. Ley, Physical Review Letters, Volume 81, Number 2, (1998))
Dielectric constant5,7 (Page 270, "High electrical resistivity of CVD-diamond", J.V. Manca, M. Nesladek, M. Neelen, C. Quaeyhaegens, L. De Schepper, W. De Ceuninck, Microelectronics Reliability 39 (1999) 269±273)
 

Atomic properties

Standard atomic weight12,011 (Table 3, Page 284, article "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)", Juris Meija, Tyler B. Coplen, Michael Berglund, Willi A. Brand, Paul De Bièvre, Manfred Gröning, Norman E. Holden, Johanna Irrgeher, Robert D. Loss, Thomas Walczyk and Thomas Prohaska, Pure and Applied Chemistry, Volume 88, Issue 3, 2013)
Atomic radius77 pm (Table 2.5, Page 18, book "Handbook of Carbon, Graphite, Diamonds and Fullerenes: Processing, Properties and Applications", Hugh O. Pierson, Noyes publications, 1993)
Covalent radius77,1 pm (Table 23.1, Page 714, book "Chemistry with Inorganic Qualitative Analysis", Therald Moeller, John C. Bailar Jr, Jacob Kleinberg, Cyrus O. Guss, Mary E. Castellion, Clyde Metz, Academic Press, 1980)
Van der Waals radius170 pm (Page 354, article "Monte Carlo simulations of H physisorption in finite-diameter 2 carbon nanotube ropes", K.A. Williams , P.C. Eklund, Chemical Physics Letters, Volume 320, Issues 3–4, Pages 352–358, 7 April 2000)
Electron configuration1s2 2s2 2p2 (Page 165504-1, article "Stuffing Improves the Stability of Fullerenelike Boron Clusters", Dasari L. V. K. Prasad and Eluvathingal D. Jemmis, Physical Review Letters, 100 – Published 24 April 2008)
Electrons per shell2, 4
Oxidation state0
Crystal structureface centered cubic (Page 208, book "Nanocomposite Thin Films and Coatings: Processing, Properties and Performance", Sam Zhang, Nasar Ali, Imperial College Press, 2007)


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